Signs have been placed around Daventry town centre advising people not to feed the birds in an effort to help reduce health risks.
Daventry District Council (DDC) has installed the signs in several locations in the latest step to tackle the issue.
There are large numbers of pigeons that sit on roof canopies of shops and in pathways, particularly Bowen Square and Foundry Place.
Apart from looking unsightly, spores from dried bird droppings can spread diseases similar to pneumonia and influenza if they are inhaled as dust and carried by the wind.
The signs ask shoppers not to feed the birds and warn them that they could face a fine or prosecution for doing so. The issue can be treated as a littering offence with a £75 fixed penalty notice, and maximum penalty of £2,500.
DDCs environment portfolio holder Cllr David Cribbin said: “Feeding the birds is technically littering and can cause a potential health hazard.
“Since we first highlighted the issue last summer we have monitored the situation and advised a number of people not to feed the birds, however the problem continues.
“The new signs in the town centre make it clear not to feed the birds and that people could be fined or prosecuted for doing so. However we hope that it won’t come to that and that these signs will act as an effective deterrent.”